Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis: A Rare Diagnosis

Date of submission: 10-02-2020 | Date of acceptance: 15-10-2020 | Published: 03-04-2021

Authors

  • Sara Monteiro Cunha Department of Pediatrics, Hospital da Senhora da Oliveira, Guimarães, Portugal
  • Rita Moita Department of Pediatrics, Centro Materno Pediátrico, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de São João, Porto, Portugal
  • Sofia Vasconcelos Department of Pediatrics, Hospital da Senhora da Oliveira, Guimarães, Portugal
  • Cláudia Neto Department of Pediatrics, Hospital da Senhora da Oliveira, Guimarães, Portugal
  • Inês Azevedo Department of Pediatrics, Centro Materno Pediátrico, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de São João, Porto, Portugal / Gynecology, Obstetrics and Pediatrics Department, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal

Abstract

Introduction: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a pulmonary inflammatory disease associated with the exposition of several environmental agents in immunological susceptible individuals. HP is a rare disease and its exact prevalence remains unknown in children.

Case report: A healthy ten-year-old male hospitalised with complaints of fatigue, anorexia, abdominal pain, and dry cough. He subsequently developed dyspnoea after mild exertion and episodes of desaturation at rest. Radiological studies and more invasive exams allowed the diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis of unknown aetiology.

Conclusion: The clinical presentation and findings in first-line diagnostic exams are non-specific. Therefore, the diagnosis of HP requires a high index of suspicion. Timely diagnosis is associated with a better prognosis along with an early implementation of corticosteroid therapy and antigen avoidance, if possible.

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Published

2021-04-15

Issue

Section

Case reports

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