Acquired Cytomegalovirus Infection in an Extremely Low-Birth Weight Infant Presenting with a Severe Sepsis-Like Syndrome

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Acquired Cytomegalovirus Infection in an Extremely Low-Birth Weight Infant Presenting with a Severe Sepsis-Like Syndrome

Case Report

Mafalda Rebordão Crisóstomo

Hospital Dona Estefânia, Centro Hospitalar Universitário, Lisboa Central
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7987-6280

Marta Povoas

Maternidade Alfredo da Costa, Centro Hospitalar Universitário, Lisboa Central

Ana Maia Pita

Hospital Dona Estefânia, Centro Hospitalar Universitário, Lisboa Central

Ema Leal

Hospital Dona Estefânia, Centro Hospitalar Universitário, Lisboa Central

José Nona

Maternidade Alfredo da Costa, Centro Hospitalar Universitário, Lisboa Central

DOI: https://doi.org/10.25754/pjp.2022.24216

Abstract

Cytomegalovirus infection is one of the most common congenital infections worldwide. Moreover, it seems to be an important cause of postnatally acquired infection. Perinatal transmission can occur intrapartum (from the birth canal), from a blood transfusion, via maternal breast milk, or from close contact with infected people. The risk of breast milk-acquired cytomegalovirus infection is higher in countries with a high prevalence of cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G-positive women. Usually, acquired cytomegalovirus infection is asymptomatic, especially in term infants. However, preterm infants can present with a sepsis-like syndrome and multiple organ involvement. A high index of suspicion is required to make an early diagnosis. Therapeutic guidelines for symptomatic postnatal cytomegalovirus infection are not yet available. More studies are required to understand the long-term sequelae of postnatally acquired cytomegalovirus infection and know which is the best strategy to avoid cytomegalovirus post-natal transmission.