Research Ethics Policy

The PJP follows the European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity (
Authors must be honest in presenting their results and conclusions of their research. Research misconduct is harmful for knowledge. It could mislead other researchers.


Research results

Fabrication, falsification or selective reporting of data with the intent to mislead or deceive is unethical, as is the theft of data or research results from others. The results of research should be recorded and maintained to allow for analysis and review. Following publication, the data should be retained for a reasonable period and made available upon request. Exceptions may be appropriate in certain circumstances in order to preserve privacy, to assure patent protection, or for similar reasons.


All those who have made a significant contribution should be cited as authors. Other individuals who have no contributed to the work should be acknowledged. Articles should include a full list of the current institutional affiliations of all authors.


Reproducing text from other papers without properly crediting the source (plagiarism) or producing many papers with almost the same content by the same authors (self-plagiarism) is not acceptable. Submitting the same results to more than one journal concurrently is unethical. Exceptions are the review articles. Authors may not present results obtained by others as if they were their own. Authors should acknowledge the work of others used in their research and cite publications that have influenced the direction and course of their study.


Duplicate submission

Simultaneous submissions of the same manuscript to different journals will not be tolerated. The submitted article will be removed without consideration.


Human and Animal Rights

The author must ensure that the study submitted for publication complies with the ethical and legal principles, during research and publication phases, including the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki revised in 2013 (, the ICMJE ( and the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) ( guidelines.

When applicable, the author must show that the research was approved by the Ethics Committee(s) of the involved institutions and that recommendations were followed. This information should appear in the body of the article. Any suspected research misconduct will be investigated, and all interested parties will be informed. Identifying information of the research subjects, including photographs, names or hospital numbers, should not be published. Studies involving animal experiments must be conducted in accordance with the guidelines defined in the “Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals” by the National Institutes of Health. All animal studies should also comply with the ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments) guidelines. The author should also comply with the national legislation that regulates this type of study (Decree-Law No. 113/2013 of 7 August 2013). The manuscript should clearly explain that the above-mentioned guidelines were followed.

The PJP holds the right to reject any manuscript based on the ethical misconduct of human or animal studies.


Clinical Trial Results

In line with the position of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the journal will not consider results posted in the same clinical trials registry in which primary registration resides to be prior publication if the results posted are presented in the form of a brief structured (less than 500 words) abstract or table. However, divulging results in other circumstances (e.g., investors' meetings) is discouraged and may jeopardise consideration of the manuscript. Authors should fully disclose all posting in registries of results of the same or closely related work.


Reporting Clinical Trials

Randomized controlled trials should be presented according to the CONSORT guidelines. At manuscript submission, authors must provide the CONSORT checklist accompanied by a flow diagram that illustrates the progress of patients through the trial, including recruitment, enrollment, randomization, withdrawal and completion, and a detailed description of the randomization procedure. The CONSORT checklist and template flow diagram are available online.


Registration of Clinical Trials

Registration in a public trials registry is a condition for publication of clinical trials in this journal in accordance with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors recommendations. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article. A clinical trial is defined as any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects of health outcomes. Health-related interventions include any intervention used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome (for example drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioural treatments, dietary interventions, and process-of-care changes). Health outcomes include any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in patients or participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events. Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) will not require registration.